Previous research has suggested lithium may be associated with lower rates of mental health disorders. Mental health diagnosis rates can vary widely based on local health care resources and demographics, and this study accounted for those variables. Health care claims data for more than 4.2 million adults living in 174 U.S counties, among them more than 404,000 patients (9.6 percent) living in 1 of 32 counties with high lithium groundwater concentration of more than 40 μg/L.
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